<<聖經>>的婚姻﹐離婚﹐與再婚觀

MARRIAGE, DIVORCE AND RE-MARRIAGE IN THE BIBLE

 林慈信

經文﹕

Genesis 2: 24                        Deuteronomy 24:1-4                      Proverbs 2:17

Malachi 2:13-16                         Matthew 5:31, 32 (esp. 32)             Matthew 18:15-18

Matthew 19:3-9 (esp. 9)             林前I Corinthians 7:10-16

引言﹕為什麼需要討論這題目﹖

Introduction.  Why Discuss the Topic?

  1. 在基督徒中間﹐包括華人福音派教會的信徒﹐離婚越來越普遍。

Divorce is increasingly common among Christians.   No longer a taboo word. 

  1. 當基督徒離婚時﹐影響到很多人。小孩親戚﹐全教會等。

Many are affected, and suffer the consequences, when divorce happens. 

  1. 神在<<聖經>>中對於婚姻﹐離婚與再婚有清楚的教導。我們不需﹐也不應該只靠我們自己的想法(常識) 來正視這些問題。

God has spoken on marriage, divorce, and re-marriage.  Don’t go by our own

ideas.

  1. 神為離婚中的受害者提供幫助﹐支持與安慰。林前1013

God offers help, support and comfort for those who suffer the consequences of divorce.  I Cor. 10:13 

  1. 基督徒常常對於愛的真義﹐婚姻﹐離婚﹐性﹐罪與再婚有不合乎<<聖經>>的觀念。羅馬書122

Christians often have un-biblical ideas about love, marriage, divorce, sex, sin and re-marriage.  Romans 12:2

  1. 我們應該彼此擔當重擔(62) 。因此﹐我們需要神的教導。

We are to bear one another’s burdens (Galatians 6:2).  So God’s instructions are

necessary. 

  1. 對離婚有正確的認識﹐可以幫助單身的青年基督徒好好的準備結婚。

Understanding this helps single people prepare properly, biblically for marriage. 

I.  婚姻 Marriage

  1. 神設立婚姻﹐為了給人同伴(218)。神也吩咐人類要生養眾多﹐遍滿全地(126-28) 。婚姻不是人想出來的﹐是神所設立的。

(神當然知道人類會否人口爆炸﹐小孩的大學教育太貴等問題﹗神仍然坐在寶座上﹗)

God instituted marriage for companionship (Genesis 2:18).  God also wanted man and woman to multiply and fill the earth (Genesis 1:26-28).  Marriage is not our idea; it’s God’s idea.     (Now God of course knows about the population explosion problem, and the expenses of a child’s education, etc.!  God is sovereign!)

  1. 婚姻不是聖禮(我們不同意天主教的教導) 。結婚並不讓我們得到更多的救恩

。單身也並不等於更加屬靈。

婚姻是一個盟約。是在神面前﹐證人面前立志﹐立約﹐終生愛對方。

(無論在教會行禮﹐或在政府面前﹐交換了誓約﹐就是結了婚了﹗)

Marriage is not a sacrament (as the Catholic church teaches).  By getting married, you do not gain more grace/salvation.  Nor is singleness more holy/spiritual. 

Marriage is a covenant.  It is a commitment, a vow before God, to love until death. 

(Whether done in a church or in front of a government official, once vows are exchanged, two persons are married!) 

217

Proverbs 2:17: “that leaves the companion of her youth and forgets the covenant of her God.”

瑪拉基書214

Malachi 2:14: “the Lord has been a witness between you and the wife of your youth, against whom you have dealt treacherously, though she is your companion and your wife by covenant.”   

  1. 愛的真義是什麼﹖(林前13)

愛就是﹕決志為對方的最高好處而活。愛不是一個感覺。愛裡有感覺﹐愛

也透過感覺來表達。

這個功課﹐神要我們用一輩子來學習。

What is love?  (I Corinthians 13)  It is a decision to live and act for the other’s highest good.  It is not a feeling, though love is expressed with feelings. 

This, of course, is a lesson which God wants us to take a whole lifetime to learn.

II.  離婚 Divorce

  1. 神恨惡離婚。離婚從來就不是神的計劃。離婚是人類墮落的後果。

God hates divorce. Divorce is never God’s intention.   Divorce is a consequence of the fall of mankind.

瑪拉基書216

Malachi 2:16: “‘For I hate divorce,’ says the Lord, the God of Israel.”

可是在人類中﹐離婚的確會發生。因此神雖然恨惡離婚﹐可是祂管制離婚。

(例如﹕申24章﹐太19章﹐林前7章等。)

But divorce happens.  Though God hates divorce, He regulates it (e.g. Deut. 24, Mt. 19, I Cor. 7). 

  1. 雖然神管制離婚﹐可是神的旨意從來就是﹕一男﹐一女 = 一體。

Even though God regulates divorce, God’s will is  – one man, one woman = one flesh. 

196

“What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate.” (Matthew 19:6)

  1. 耶穌教導祂的門徒(基督徒) ﹕不可離婚。離婚乃將婚約破除。

Jesus instructs his followers (Christians): do not divorce.  Divorce breaks the

marriage.   

5 31-32

“It was said, ‘Whoever sends his wife away, let him give her a certificate of divorce’: but I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except of the reason of unchastity (fornication), makes her commit adultery; and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.” (Matthew 5:31-32)   

4.      不合乎<<聖經>>的離婚之後﹐若再婚乃是奸淫﹐因為這個後來的婚姻

損害了先頭的婚姻的聖潔。

注﹕可能很多基督徒目前活在這種的婚姻當中﹔可是不要隨便再離婚﹔

悔改必蒙赦免﹗

After a divorce not warranted by the Bible, if either one enters into another marriage, the subsequent marriage is adulterous because it has violated the sanctity of the first marriage.  Note: Many Christians may be living in such “adulterous” 2nd marriages.  However this does not mean that they should hastily go and get another divorce.  When we repent of our sins, God promises forgiveness!  

5.      耶穌提出一個例外情況﹕淫亂。

注﹕淫亂(fornication)  = 所有與性有關的罪。

奸淫 (adultery) = 任何違背婚約﹐不忠的行為。

這兩個字在聖經裡有特定的用法。

532

199

Jesus provides one exception: fornication. 

Note: “Fornication” is any kind of sexual sin.  “Adultery” is any unfaithfulness which  violates the marriage vow, sexual or not.  

“Except for the reason of unchastity (fornication)” (Matthew 5:32). 

“And I say to you, whoever divorces his wife, except for immorality, and marries another woman commits adultery.”  (Matthew 19:9)

  1. 耶穌在太199針對的﹐是猶太人太容易﹐太輕率地離婚。神雖然管制離婚﹐要求人離婚時必需給對方休書﹐可是神從來不鼓勵人離婚。神從來沒有在任何情況裡要求人必須離婚﹗

In Matthew 19:9, Jesus is rebuking the Jews for easy divorces.  Though God regulated through certificates of divorce, he did not encourage divorce.  God never requires/encourages divorce!   

  1. 申命記241-4 描述一個情況﹕男人休了妻子﹐因為她不悅目。她再婚﹐

第二個丈夫也因為不悅目她而休了她。兩次的離婚﹐都是不合乎神的心意

的。可是﹐離婚在神的眼中是那麼的嚴重﹕當第二個丈夫死後﹐第一個丈夫

不可再娶這女人為妻。人再婚後﹐與前配偶和好再嫁/娶就不可能了。

(注﹕不悅目--原文的意思不容易確定。)

Deuteronomy 24:1-4 describes a situation:  a woman is divorced twice for “unpleasantness”– God does not approve of either divorce.  But divorce is so serious in God’s eyes, that it cannot be remedied through reconciliation, once re-marriage has happened. 

“When a man takes a wife and marries her, and it happens that she finds no favor in his eyes because he has found some indecency (unpleasantness) in her, and he writes her a certificate of divorce and puts it in her hand and sends her out from his house, and she leaves his house and goes and becomes another man’s wife,

and if the latter husband turns against her and writes her a certificate of divorce and puts it in her hand and sends her out of his house, or if the latter husband dies who took her to be his wife, then her former husband who sent her away is not allowed to take her again to be his wife, since she has been defiled; for that is an

abomination before the Lord, and you shall not bring sin on the land which the Lord your God gives you as an inheritance.” (Deuteronomy 24:1-4)

  1. 我們必須從馬太1815-18的角度來看馬太19﹕。兩處經文都是耶穌的教導

﹗若有基督徒犯了淫亂的罪﹐教會應該跟著馬太1815-18的四步驟﹕

() 私下面責﹔() 帶一﹐兩個證人面責﹔() 告訴教會﹔() 開除會籍

﹐把他當作外人﹐非信徒對待。

若在第123步中﹐他悔改了﹐那麼他應與神﹐與配偶和好。

1815-18

Understand Matthew 19:9 in light of Matthew 18:15-18.  Jesus is speaking in both places.  When a Christian commits fornication, the church must follow 4 steps: (1) speak privately to him, (2) bring witnesses, (3) tell it to the church, (4) if he does not repent, expel him, regard him as a non-believer.  If  the Christian repents (in steps 1-3), restore him, reconcile him to his spouse.

“If your brother sins, go and show him his fault in private; if he listens to you, you have won your brother.  But if he does not listen to you, take one or two more with you, so that by the mouth of two or three witnesses every fact may be confirmed.   If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuse to listen to the church, let him be to you as a Gentile and tax collector.  Truly I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.” (Matthew 18:15-18)  

  1. 紀律(管教) 是耶穌基督對全教會清楚的吩咐(就像洗禮與聖餐是耶穌清楚

吩咐的一樣) 。紀律的目標﹐一定是恢復犯罪者與神的關係﹐和與人(家庭) 和好。若好好執行紀律的話﹐教會必定更健康。這需要勤勞的事奉﹐是不容易的﹗很多教會在這方面虧欠/懶惰。

Discipline is explicitly commanded by Jesus, like baptism and the Lord’s Supper are.  The goal of discipline (Matthew 18) is always to reconcile people to God and others.  Discipline contributes to the spiritual health of the church.  It is hard work!  (Churches are grossly negligent here.)   

  1. 馬太福音1819章要一起來讀。() 基督徒不可(主動) 離婚。() 基督徒若

犯淫亂﹐教會應該跟馬太福音18章的程序處理。() 犯罪者若不悔改﹐那麼

另一方可以離婚。神從來沒有吩咐基督徒離婚﹐神從來沒有鼓勵基督徒離婚﹔在這個情況﹐神容許基督徒離婚。(注﹕對方已經不是基督徒了。)

Put Matthew 18 and 19 together: (a) Christians must not divorce.  (b) If a Christian commits fornication, follow the 4 steps in Matthew 18.  (c) If the sinner does not repent, the Christian has the option to divorce. Divorce is never commanded/encouraged by God; it is allowed here. 

  1. 保羅在林前710-11所教導的﹐與耶穌的教導完全符合。基督徒不可彼此

離婚。

I Corinthians 7:10-11 Paul teaches the same thing as Jesus.  Christians cannot divorce each other. 

  1. 可是在林前712-16 保羅處理了另外一種情況﹐是耶穌在福音書裡沒有

處理的。(因此保羅說﹐不是主說﹐是我說。”)
()
基督徒弟配偶若不是基督徒﹐那麼基督徒不可提出離婚﹐要與非信徒

同住。() 若非信徒要離開﹐那麼基督徒必須讓他離開(離婚) 。神吩咐基

督徒要容許非信徒離婚(若後者要這樣作的話)

林前710-15

In verses 12-16, Paul deals with a second scenario which Jesus did not deal with: (a) If a Christian has a non-Christian spouse, the Christian must live with him/her.  (b)If  the non-Christian leaves (i.e., divorces the Christian), the Christian is commanded to allow for the divorce, for peace’s sake. 

“But to the married I give instructions, not I, but the Lord, that the wife should not leave her husband (but if she does leave, she must remain unmarried, or else be reconciled to her husband), and that the husband should not divorce his wife.  But to the rest I say, not the Lord, that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he must not divorce her.  And a woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to live with her, she must not send her husband away.  For the unbelieving husband I sanctified through his wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified through her believing husband; for otherwise your children are unclean, but now they are holy.  Yet if the unbelieving one leaves, let him leave; the brother or the sister is not under bondage in such cases, but God has called us to peace.”  (I Corinthians 7:10-15) 

  1. 在林前712-15﹐保羅說﹐因為有基督徒在一個家庭裡﹐那些非信徒都成為

聖潔 了﹗

In I Cor. 7:12-15, non-Christians are “holy” because a Christian is in the home! 

  1. 結論﹕ () 馬太福音1819章教導我們﹐基督徒弟基督徒配偶﹐若犯淫亂

﹐而不悔改也不聽教會的紀律/管教的話﹐基督徒可以離婚 (到那個地步﹐對

方已經不是基督徒了) () 林前712-15教導我們﹐當一個非基督徒向一

個基督徒提出離婚時﹐基督徒必須容許離婚。在這兩個例外情況下﹐神容許基督徒離婚。

Conclusion: (a) Matthew 18 and 19 teaches that, if a Christian’s Christian spouse commits fornication, does not repent and does not heed discipline, the Christian can divorce his/her spouse (who by now is regarded as a non-believer).  (b) I Corinthians 7:12-15 teaches that when a non-Christian divorces a Christian, the Christian must allow for this divorce and go through with it.  These are the two situations where God allows the Christian to participate in a divorce. 

  1. 請注意﹕所謂心靈的創傷﹐從來就不是聖經提供的離婚理由。可是﹐教會必須根據馬太福音18執行處理犯罪事件﹐這包括一個配偶不遵行婚約的義務﹐

如離棄家庭﹐或虐待等。有身體/生命危險時﹐教會應立刻採取行動保護受害者。

Note that “mental pain” is never given as a reason for Christians to divorce.  The church, however, must follow Matthew 18 and exercise discipline when a spouse neglects or violates his/her marriage obligations (e.g. by desertion or physical abuse).  If there is physical danger, the church should act immediately to protect the injured/potential victims.  

III.  再婚 Re-marriage

 

  1. 在林前715﹐當基督徒讓非基督徒離婚之後﹐可以再婚。這是最自然解釋1415節的方法。英文﹕在這些事上﹐我們不被捆綁。

In I Corinthians 7:15, a Christian who participates in a divorce initiated by his/her non-Christian spouse, is allowed to re-marry. 

“ Yet if the unbelieving one leaves, let him leave; the brother or the sister is not under bondage in such cases, but God has called us to peace.”  (I Cor. 7:10-15)

  1. 我們的結論是﹐在馬太福音福音199﹐耶穌讓基督徒離婚﹐當對方犯

淫亂﹐不肯悔改也不聽教會的管教時。基督徒若離婚﹐可以再婚。

We conclude that in Matthew 19:9, Jesus allows divorce to happen in the exceptional case of fornication (with the understanding that, reconciliation is not possible because the fornicator refuses to repent and refuses to heed discipline.)

The most natural interpretation is: he/she who divorces under these circumstances, can remarry. 

Jay Adams, Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible (Zondervan 1980). 

“Divorce and Remarriage,” PCA Digest: Position Papers 1973-1993 (info: www.pcanet.org; www.gcp.org).  pp. 182-293.   

Sling@chinahorizon.org                                                 http://samling.ccim.org

June 9, 2002

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