聖經輔導學導論」課程要點摘錄

INTRODUCTION TO BIBLICAL COUNSELING

LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS

林慈信牧師

200463日,2008112日增訂)

 

 

I.《聖經》輔導簡史Brief Historical Review of Biblical Counseling

1. 宗教改革,清教徒﹕「心靈的醫治」。Reformation, Puritans: “the cure of souls.”

2. 世俗心理學的興起﹕19世紀末,20世紀。Rise of secular psychology: late 19th century, 20th century.

3. 1950年代﹕世俗心理學進入教會。1950s: Secular psychology enters the church.

4. 1960年代﹕進入福音派教會。1960s: Enters the evangelical church.

5. 1970亞當斯,《成功的輔導》面世,創始《聖經》輔導運動。1970 Jay Adams, Competent to Counsel.  Launches Biblical (nouthetic) counseling movement.

6. 第二代《聖經》輔導運動﹕CCEF2nd generation: Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation.  John Bettler -> David Powlison, Paul Trip, Ed Welch. 

7. 全國性組織。 Nation-wide movement: National Association of Nouthetic Counselors. 

 

II.《聖經》輔導的目標 The Goal of Biblical Counseling

1.     《聖經》輔導的目標,不是使人感覺舒服 (如佛洛伊德Freud: equilibrium)

The goal of biblical counseling is not the person feeling better (e.g. Freud: equilibrium).

2.     《聖經》輔導的目標,也不是給人一個積極的自尊心 (positive self-esteem)

The goal of biblical counseling is not a positive self-esteem.

3.     *《聖經》輔導的目標﹕助人過有紀律的生活,遵行上帝的話,結聖靈的果子。

The goal of biblical counseling is: a disciplined life, obedience to God’s Word, and bearing the fruit of the Holy Spirit. 

4.     *或說《聖經》輔導的目標是﹕助人有清潔無虧的良心(提前15)。

Or: The goal of biblical counseling is: a clean conscience (I Tim. 1:5). 

5.     《聖經》輔導是教會傳道事工的一種,是上帝話語的教導 (the ministry of teaching God’s Word)。徒2020-31﹕或在家中(輔導),或在眾人前(講道)。

Biblical counseling is a form of the ministry of preaching/teaching God’s Word in the church.  Acts 20:20-31: at home (counseling), or for all (preaching). 

6.     有人提出異議﹕《聖經》輔導與傳福音有何不同?這樣說,輔導只不過是傳福音?回答﹕這有什麼壞處?教會不傳福音 / 帶領人作基督徒,要作什麼?

Objection: If so, what’s the difference between biblical counseling and evangelism?  Are you just doing evangelism?  Answer: What’s wrong with that?  If the church don’t witness to the gospel, and make disciples for Christ, what should we be doing? 

7.     「病人」 和人感受為中心 (client-centered)  的輔導,至終是自私和懶惰的。必需向人挑戰﹕不可憑感覺;生活的目標是順服上帝,建立自律,結果子。

Client-centered counseling is, in the final analysis, selfish and lazy.  We must challenge people: do not depend on/feed on your feelings.  The goal in life is to obey God, and to build disciplined, fruit-bearing lives. 

 

III.世俗心理輔導專業﹕附批判 Helping Professions

1. 精神科醫生Psychiatrist﹕是醫生,可以開藥。Physicians; can prescribe medication. 

2. 臨床心理學家 Clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) ﹕不可開藥。These are not physicians. 

3. 社會工作者 Social worker (M.S.W.)

4. 婚姻家庭輔導,治療者 Marriage and Family Therapist/Counselor

5. 各式心理治療者 All kinds of “therapists,” “counselors”

 

IV.心理學是上帝的啟示嗎? Is Psychology God’s Revelation?

1. Cornelius Van Til 范泰爾的批判﹕The critique by Cornelius Van Til:

Authority of the Expert.  專家的權威不能凌駕在《聖經》以上。

The authority of the expertise cannot, should not be above the Bible’s authority. 

(例如﹕輔導時候可否用《聖經》,在乎這樣作是否符合心理輔導的原則;這種想法,事實上已經將心理學的專業理論凌駕《聖經》以上。)

Example: the principle that: whether the Bible can be used in counseling sessions, depend whether such use are in accord with sound psychological/counseling principles.  This kind of thinking, in effect, has placed psychology’s professional expertise above the Bible as an authority above the Bible.

2. 文化(包括心理學)是什麼?不是神的普遍啟示,連影子都不是!心理學是人對上帝普遍啟示的回應。墮落的人,對上帝啟示的回應一定有錯誤,有所歪曲。

What is culture (including psychology)?  It is NOT God’s general revelation, not even a shadow of it!  Psychology is man (sinner)’s response to God’s general revelation.  As sinners, we will inevitably respond to God’s revelation in a twisted and erroneous way. 

 

V.誰能輔導?Who Can Counsel?

1. 聖靈是輔導者﹕賽111-2The Holy Spirit is counselor: Isaiah 11:1-2. 

2. 《羅馬書》1514 – 基督徒都能勸戒,因有良善與知識 Competent to Counsel.

Romans 15:14: Every Christian can counsel, because he/she has goodness and knowledge.  Every Christian is “competent to counsel.” 

3. 有基督徒特別有輔導的恩賜。羅128

Some Christians have special gifts for counseling.  Romans 12:8. 

4. 加拉太書62 – 基督徒必需輔導,挽回在罪中的人。Ready to Restore.

Galatians 6:2: Christians must counsel and restore those who have fallen into sin. 

5. 特別是長老們,牧師傳道們,需要輔導。徒20202831

Specially elders and pastors should counsel.  Acts 20:20, 28, 31. 

 

VI.《聖經》輔導的對象 Who Should Receive Biblical Counseling?

1. 教會的信徒。教會若不強(內部腐爛),怎樣傳福音?

Christians.  If the church is not strong, and is “rotten inside,” how can she reach out?

2. 慕道朋友。為什麼不可以向他們進行《聖經》輔導?我們很多時候害怕世人不能接受福音,其實我們的懼怕常常使教會癱瘓 (paralyzed)!參歡迎,朋友

Non-believers.  Why shouldn’t/can’t we provide them with biblical counseling?  We are often so afraid that non-Christians would not receive the gospel.  Actually we become paralyzed by this fear!  Cf. “Welcome, friend” letter/brochure. 

 

VII.聖經輔導學基本的原則(預設)﹕人是什麼? (The Bible’s View of Man)        

            Basic Principles (Presuppositions) of Biblical counseling: What is Man?

1. 預設是不能用邏輯或科學證明,又是我們事先假設,相信的,很基本的信念。

Presuppositions are things we believe, and assume (presuppose).  These cannot be proven by science or logic.  (John Frame, Apologetics to the Glory of God, P&R.  Richard Pratt, Every Thought Captive, P&R.  www.prpbooks.com. )

預設的同意詞,是「世界觀」 (worldview, or world and life view)

A synonymn of “presupposition” would be worldview, or world and life view.

例﹕人是誰/人是什麼?是神創造的,還是進化的?

E.g.: What is man?  Is man created by God, or evolved?

有神的形象,或像動物,僅是一堆欲望(如﹕佛洛伊德﹕生欲,死欲)?

Is man the image of God?  Or just like an animal, a bunch of desires/drives?  (e.g. Sigmund Freud: eros and thanatos, the desire for life/sex, and desire for death?)

人的尊嚴何處來?來自神的形象?是自發的?

Where does man’s dignity come from?  From the image of God?  From inside himself?

究竟人 「自由」 嗎?人可離開上帝自主生活(autonomous) 嗎?

Is man really free?  Can man live independently, autonomous from God? 

即﹕宇宙人生有那些範疇 (categories/contexts),耶穌基督不管理,耶穌不是主?

In other words: Which categories/contexts in the universe are free from the rule of Jesus Christ?  Is there any area in which Jesus is not Lord? 

(羅傑斯﹕人趨向自主 – autonomy﹕合乎神的設計嗎?)

Carl Rogers: The self moves toward autonomy: Is this God’s design? 

「自由意志」 (free will) 的定義是什麼?

What is the definition of “free will”? 

人須為自己的行為,言語,思想負責嗎?還是一個受害者?

Must man take responsibility for his own behavior, words, thoughts?  Or is he just a victim? 

人的問題從哪堥荂H

Where do man’s problems come from? 

從小時的傷害(父母,教師,宗教等)?

From injuries received in childhood/youth (parents, teachers, religion)? 

還是自己要為自己的罪負責?

Or does man need to take responsibility of his own sins? 

人的問題歸根到底是什麼?是罪?病?傷害?

What is the root/cause of man’s problems?  Is it sin?  Sickness?  Injury?

如何解決人(輔導求助者)的問題?探索原生家庭所造成的傷害?

How to solve the problems of the counselee? 

By exploring the injuries experienced by the person, from his family of origin? 

帶人到十字架,和神的話面前?

Do we bring people to the cross, to God’s word? 

2. 《聖經》輔導學的人觀(預設)與心理學的人觀完全不同。

The biblical counseling movement holds a radically different view of man (doctrine of man, presuppositions) from the view of man adopted by secular psychology. 

心理學的人觀有嚴重的錯誤。

There are serious errors in the view of man held by secular psychology (schools). 

我們並不懷疑,大部分的心理學家,動機都是幫助人。

We do not question the motives of most psychologists – they intend to help people. 

我們不需要懷疑,很多心理學家是虔誠的基督徒!

We also don’t doubt that many psychologists are devout Christians. 

這些因素並不保證他們的預設是合乎《聖經》的。

But these facts/factors do not guarantee that their presuppositions are biblical. 

3. 人觀包括﹕人是什麼?人的問題,需要在哪堙H如何解決人的問題?

A person’s “view of man” includes: what is man?  Wherein lie man’s needs and problems?  How to solve man’s problems? 

4. 加爾文﹕認識上帝,認識人。要認識人,必需認識上帝,祂如何看待人。

Calvin talks about knowing God, and knowing man (ourselves).  In order to know man,

we must know God – we must know how God views man.  (John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion.  Book 1, chapter 1.)

5. 《聖經》的人觀是﹕(a) 人是按照上帝的形象被造的,有(一)真理的知識(知),(二)仁義(意),和(三)聖潔的心(情)。亞當是(一)先知,(二)君王,(三)祭司。(b) 但人犯罪墮落了,知,意,情都歪曲了。(c) 重生的意義﹕(一)聖靈光照理智,認識真理;(二)聖靈克服意志,人降服在基督下,(三)感情跟著理智與意志,渴慕上帝,到十字架面前。這是具體的思維方式。

The Bible’s view of man is: (a) Man is created in the image of God.  At creation, man has knowledge of truth (in his mind), righteousness (in his will), and holiness (in his heart).  Adam was prophet, king, and priest.  (b) But man sinned, and mankind fell.  Man’s mind, heart and will are all depraved (twisted).  (c) The meaning of being born again (regeneration) is: (i) The Holy Spirit enlightens the mind, so that man knows the truth.  (ii) The Holy Spirit overcomes the will, so that man surrenders under Christ’s lordship.  (iii) The heart of man follows the mind and will, to thirst after God.  Man comes to the cross.  This would be “concrete thinking” about man. 

6. 人最基本的需要不是被肯定,被愛,而是敬拜(約424)。有三種人﹕(一)以心靈與誠實敬拜;(二)不以真理敬拜真神;(三)敬奉假神偶像(羅125)。

Man’s most basic need is not to be affirmed, to be loved, rather: it is the need to worship (John 4:24).  There are three kinds of people: (i) Those who worship the true God in spirit and in truth.  (ii) Those who worship the true God in the wrong way.  (iii) Those who worship and serve false gods (idols, Romans 1:25). 

7. 《聖經》要求人三樣事﹕(一)信靠,(二)悔改,(三)遵行上帝的話。

God demands three things from man: (i) faith, (ii) repentance, (iii) obey God’s Word. 

8. 解決人問題的方案,不外這三方面的立志與操練(使人歸正,教導人學義)。

Thus, the way to solve man’s problems, is none other than to help man commit himself, and to discipline himself in these three areas (faith, repentance, obedience) – In other words, the way to solve problems is through “correction and training in righteousness.” 

 

VIII.清教徒與輔導 The Puritans and Counseling

1. 清教徒成熟,我們這代信徒不成熟。The Puritans were mature, we are not. 

(巴刻J.I. Packer, The Quest for Godliness.

2. 為什麼我們不成熟?因為我們對神不認真。

Why are we not mature?  Because we are not serious enough about God. 

(巴刻,《活在聖靈中》, J.I. Packer, Keep in Step with the Spirit.參看「聖靈與聖潔」一章。Chapter on “Holiness and the Holy Spirit.”

3. 清教徒﹕一個牧養教會的運動。   Puritanism was a movement of pastors.

4. 清教徒牧師都從事輔導,稱之為靈魂的醫治。

Puritan pastors all engage in counseling – they call it “the cure of souls.”

這方面的著作,最有名的是《天路歷程》;最完備的,是 Richard Baxter, A Christian Directory (800+ pages, $45, Soli Deo Gloria)

The most famous work on the cure of souls is Pilgrims’ Progress.  The most comprehensive work is Richard Baxter’s A Christian Directory (800+ pages). 

5. 20世紀的例子﹕鍾馬田,《靈性低潮》 (Martin Lloyd-Jones, Spiritual Depression)。輔導的基礎是神的話,《聖經》的真理。

Example of 20th century Puritan “cure of souls” would be Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Spiritual Depression.  The foundation of counseling must be God’s Word, biblical truth.

6. 如何應用《聖經》在不同生活情況上。

Casuistry: cases of conscience: the art of applying Scripture to various contexts in life. 

7. 現代的心理學,是將《聖經》輔導歪曲,世俗化。

Modern psychology has twisted and secularized Biblical counseling. 

8. 清教徒與《聖經》輔導﹕律法主義?

Are Puritans/Biblical Counselors Legalistic?

a. 律法主義 = 要求人遵守一些《聖經》沒有定下的規條。

            What is legalism?  It is to require man to follow rules not laid down in the Bible.

b. 清教徒﹕回到《聖經》找上帝所吩咐的誡命。

            The Puritans returned to the Bible to discover commands which God has laid down. 

c. 另一極端﹕無律法主義,假自由意志的名義,縱容放縱情欲。

Another extreme is lawlessness (anti-nomianism) – under the pretext of “free will,” allowing sin and licentiousness.

 

IX.良心 Conscience

1. 清教徒對良心的定義﹕良心是人的理智作出道德判斷。

The Puritans’ definition:  Conscience is the mind of man passing moral judgment. 

講義中第16-23課對問題的定義,都從思想開始。

Cf. Introduction to Biblical Counseling syllabus.  Biblical counseling defines all problems (worry, fear, anger, marital problems, etc.) beginning with man’s mind. 

2. 罪人良心的標準不合乎神的律法;因此,對得住良心還是對不住上帝;對不住良心也是神不喜悅的。因此,人需要重生,換心(結3625-26,約3358)。

The conscience of sinners do not have God’s law as the norm.  Therefore, when a conscience is clean to a person himself, it is not acceptable to God.  And if a person has an uneasy (bad) conscience, it is not pleasing to God either.  Therefore, man needs to be regenerated – he needs a “heart change”(Ezek. 36:25-26; John 3:3, 5, 8). 

3. 良心不可靠,必須學習。

Man’s conscience is not infallible.  Man’s conscience needs to learn. 

基督徒必需操練良心。學習上帝的道。良心由上帝的道與聖靈來管教。

The conscience needs to be discipline.  It needs to learn God’s Word. 

The conscience needs to be disciplined by God’s Word and the Holy Spirit. 

 

X.《聖經》輔導的步驟 提後316 Steps in Biblical Counseling – II Timothy 3:16  

1. 教導 神是怎麼樣的一位神,祂的吩咐是什麼。

          Teaching: What kind of God is God?  What are God’s requirements/commands?

2. 督責 我們如何的犯了罪,得罪了神。

          Reproof: How have we sinned and offended God?

3. 使人歸正 禱告悔改,立志改過。

          Correction – bring people to pray, repent, and commit themselves to change. 

4. 教導人學義 操練敬虔,有紀律的生活。

          Training for righteousness – learn to be disciplined, godly in life. 

 

XI.所謂「基督教心理輔導」對《聖經》輔導的批判

Critique of Biblical Counseling (from so-called “Christian Counseling”)

1. 沒有愛心,不同情人,沒有同理心。(參﹕輔導七步驟。)

Biblical counselors are not loving, they have no empathy.  They don’t care about people. 

2. 亞當斯不了解心理學。(亞當斯的自白﹕《聖靈的勸誡》﹕前言,第一章。)

Biblical counselors don’t know anything about psychology.  (Cf. Jay E. Adams’ sharing in his Competent to Counsel, chapter 1.) 

3. 《聖經》輔導者只指出人的罪(叫人焦慮更甚)。(人的需要是究竟什麼?)

Biblical counselors only point out people’s sin, so their anxiety increases.  (What is the need of man?) 

4. 《聖經》輔導沒有考慮到人身體上的因素。

Biblical counseling doesn’t address man’s bodily factors. 

(參基督徒醫生的著作,他們同時是《聖經》輔導員;如﹕

Cf. Books written by doctors who are also Biblical counselors:

Robert Smith, A Christian Counselor’s Medical Desk Reference。)

 

XII.《聖經》輔導兩代 Two Generations of Nouthetic Counseling

1.亞當斯﹕開荒者。 Jay E. Adams, the pioneer. 

2CCEF﹕深入研究人的動機。(Walter Chung, 「再談《聖經》輔導學」。) Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation (www.ccef.org): Analyzes motives in the heart. 

 

XIII 給人們的盼望  Give People Hope: There is Hope

1. 人需要盼望,因為除起初面對的挫折,還因受了非《聖經》的輔導而失望或絕望。

People need hope because, in addition to the original setback in life, people became more disappointed (even despair) because they received non-biblical counseling. 

2. 我們要給人盼望﹕但不要亂開支票﹕你丈夫不會跟你離婚的!(你我怎麼知道?)

We must give people hope: but let’s not write “blank checks,” e.g.: “Your husband won’t divorce you!”  (How do you know he won’t?)  

3. 真正的盼望﹕你有盼望,若願意按照上帝的話面對你的情況,不論你感受如何。

Real hope: We can say: “There is hope for you, if you are willing to face your problems God’s way, regardless of how you feel.” 

4. 林前1013﹕(一)你不孤獨,你面對的問題不是過於人能擔當的。(二)上帝是不變的,信實的。(三)有盼望,有出路(若你願意按照祂的話來面對,回應你的問題,無論感受如何)。(四)出路不是逃避,乃是經過,忍受得著。

Hope from I Cor.10:13:  (i) You are not alone.  The problem(s) you face are not greater than what man can handle.  (ii) God is unchanging, faithful.  (iii) There is hope, there is a way out (if you are willing to face this problem according to His Word – regardless of how you feel).  (iv) The way out is not to avoid the problem, but to go through it, to endure it. 

 

XIV.基督徒與非基督徒的不同 Is a Christian Different from a Non-Christian?

既然基督徒也會犯罪,那末,基督徒與非基督徒有什麼不一樣?

Since Christians also sin, what’s the difference between a Christian and a non-Christian? 

1. 重生的基督徒,會對自己的罪完全誠實面對。只有真正重生的基督徒才會。

A born again Christian (and only a born again Christian) is honest about his sin. 

2. 重生的基督徒,會懂得如何面對罪﹕他會到十字架面前。只有重生的基督徒才會。

A born again Christian (and only a born again Christian) knows what to do with sin: he comes to the cross. 

3. 重生的基督徒,在對付罪,勝過罪這事上,是有進步的。

          A born again Christian makes progress out of sin. 

 

XV.如何面對家庭背景,如何面對過去  Facing Family Background, Facing Our Past

1. 我們要知道求助者的過去家庭背景,傷害等。可是每人必需為自己負責,如何面對過去。我們的過去與現在,都是上帝美好的安排,我們必需學習感恩。

    We should understand the family background, and past injuries experienced by the counselee.  However, everyone must be responsible for his/her own responses.  Our past and present is part of God’s wise providence.  We must learn how to give thanks to God.

2. 我們要為過去所犯的罪,少年的私欲,求上帝赦免。上帝必定在基督堻j免我們的罪,這是祂的保證!

    We should ask God to forgive us for the sins of our youth.  God will forgive us in Christ:

this is the guarantee of his Word.

3. 接受上帝的赦免之後,我們要為生命堛漪芠疝P謝祂。疤痕(特別是回憶)不一定是懲罰;上帝不咒詛我們一生作次等公民!要從十字架的角度(恩典)來面對過去。基督徒生活肯定會有苦難;原因﹕一,我們生活在一個墮落的世界堙A罪一定帶來苦難;二,基督徒須要為主,為福音受苦;三,我們因別人犯罪而受苦;四,我們自己犯罪因此受苦。

    After we receive God’s forgiveness, thank God for the scars in our lives.  Scars, especially our memory, may not be punishment from God – God does not curse us to be second-class citizens for life!  View our past from the perspective of the cross (grace). Christians will have suffering; there are several reasons for this: 1.  We do live in a fallen world.  Sin will bring suffering.  2.  Christians will suffer for Christ, for the gospel.  3.  We will suffer because of someone else’s sin.  4.  We sin, therefore suffering comes upon us.

 

XVI.如何面對死亡 Facing Death

通常有六種面對死亡的方法﹕Usually, people face death in one of six ways:

1. 否定對方已經去世。Denial: denying that the loved one has died. 

2. 憂傷以致憂鬱。不能正常的工作。

Depression: sorrow to the level of depression, so that we cannot work/function normally. 

3. 靠自己的力量面對。(很孤單)

Defiance: we face the death of our loved one with our own strength.  Very lonely to do this. 

4. 向上帝發怒,問﹕為什麼?Anger at God – asking “Why, God?”

5. 向家人發涉怒氣,弟兄姐妹之間不和。

Anger directed at family/loved ones.  Strife, no harmony in the family during period of grief. 

6. 內疚。這是特別侵蝕我們心靈的!Guilt.  This “eats away” at our soul! 

7. 上面六條都是死路。Each one of these six ways is a “dead end street.” 

只有依靠上帝,才能有效的面對憂傷,勝過憂傷。

Only if we rely on (trust in) God, can we effectively face our grief, and overcome our grief. 

如何依靠上帝?以感謝來回憶過去。感謝上帝將已去世的家人(親友)賜為我們,在地上活了這些年日。

How to depend on God?  Remember the past with a heart of thanksgiving.  Thank God for giving this (deceased) loved one to us, that this person lived for these years on earth with us. 

賞賜的是耶和華,收取的是耶和華,耶和華的名是應當稱頌的。

The Lord gives, the Lord takes away.  Blessed be the name of the Lord.

8. 換言之,我們要靠上帝的恩典與已去世的親人道別 (Say Good-bye),從今以後,以感恩來回憶。

In other words, we should “say good-bye” by God’s grace to our deceased loved one.  From now on, remember him/her with thanksgiving to God.

9. 一個安息禮拜講道大綱﹕Outline of a funeral sermon:

          God is God. 

          God is good. 

          God will receive His glory.

 

XVII.正視淫亂 The Biblical View on Sexual Sin

1. 淫亂  (fornication) 是指所有的性罪。人都會犯淫亂的罪。

The word “fornication” refers to all sexual sins.  All people commit fornication. 

2. 奸淫 (adultery)是違背婚約的行為。已經結婚的人所的罪,稱為奸淫。

The word “adultery” refers to sins which violate a marriage vow. 

3. 淫亂始於淫念 (lust)。我們的大腦是身體堻怞酗O的器官。犯罪往往從思想開始。

Fornication begins with lust in the mind.  Our brain is the most powerful sex-organ in our bodies.  Sin most often begins in the mind – begins with thoughts. 

4. 分析﹕淫念是貪心  (greed) 一種。都犯十誡,都是自我中心生活的表現。

Analysis: Lust is a form of greed.  It violates of God’s law, is a form of self-centered living. 

5. 如何勝過淫念(貪心)? 第一,要在上帝面前承認我們需要聖靈。求聖靈掌管我們的思想。把我們的思想生活,眼睛,雙手,身體每部分交托聖靈,奉獻給祂用。

How to overcome lust/greed?  First, confess before God that we need the Holy Spirit.  Ask the Holy Spirit to control our thoughts.  Commit our thought-life, our eyes, our hands, our bodies to the Holy Spirit.  Let him use us. 

6. 第二,要操練內心的滿足 (contentment)。人的身體,性別,靈魂,自我 (identity) 都是上帝所賜。因此我們需要為這些感謝上帝﹕(一)我們的性別,(二)我們的身體(是神所造的),(三)我們的感情,包括性方面的(都是神所造的,都是好的;只有誤用是才是犯罪),(四)我們的父母親(不論他們如何養育我們)。

Second: Practice contentment in the heart.  Our body, gender, soul, identity are all given by God.  Therefore we should give thanks to God for these: (1) our gender, (b) our bodies (created by God), (3) our feelings, including sexual ones (God created them; they are good; the misuse of them is sin), (4) our parents (no matter how they raised us). 

7. 第三,要知道自己的軟弱,而加倍儆醒。

Third, we should be aware of our own weak points – and be extra alert. 

在哪些情況下我會挑起我的私欲?應該避免看什麼讀物?避免去哪些地方?避免與什麼朋友外出?上網時應該如何儆醒?

What kind of circumstances would arouse my lust?  What reading materials should I avoid?  What places should I avoid going to?  What kind of friends should I avoid going out with?  How should I be extra alert when surfing on the internet? 

在上列的情況中,要操練禱告!

In all these circumstances, practice praying! 

談戀愛者約會時,應避免在哪些地方停留(給自己提供誘惑,給魔鬼留地步)?

When you are going out with your date, what kind of places should you avoid lingering at, which would give yourselves temptation, and give the Devil an opportunity? 

8. 第四,我們需要彼此守望 (mutual accountability)

Fourth, we need mutual accountability.

9. 第五,承認我們需要屬靈的遮蓋與保護。要求教會或團契,長者們為我們禱告。 

Fifth, confess that we need spiritual protection.  Ask the church, elders to pray for us. 

 

XVIII.其他問題﹕憂慮,憂鬱,怒氣﹕參講義。關於離婚參﹕「婚姻,離婚,再婚觀大綱」,或《婚姻輔導學》(大光)。Other Problems: Worry, Depression, Anger, etc.: cf. syllabus notes.  Cf. Jay E. Adams, Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible. 

 

XIX.世俗觀念一﹕「心理病」的神話 Secular Concept #1: Myth of “Mental Illness”

附﹕問題的來源是否出自身體,還是罪?Do our problems come from our bodies? Or from sin? 

1. 人們問題的來源有兩種﹕身體上的。因此,基督徒與教會的牧長必需與誠實的醫生合作。其他的就是靈性的(就是,行為上的)。靈性的因素有三類﹕(一)自己犯罪,(二)他人犯罪,傷害自己,(三)邪靈。

There are two sources of our problems: the body is one source.  Therefore, all pastors

should work  with a honest doctor.  Other sources are all spiritual (i.e., in behavior). 

Spiritual factors include: (a) sin, (b) other people sinning against us, (c) evil spirits. 

2. 輔導面對的問題,如憂鬱,絕對可能有身體上的因素。

Problems in counseling, e.g. depression, may have physical factors.  The Christian Counselor’s Medical Reference. Timeless Texts (Dr. Jay Adams’ publishing house) www.timelesstexts.com

3. 佛洛伊德前,當人們說某某人有 「心理病」時,有兩種可能﹕一,「病」 用法是寓意的;病可指憂傷,罪,憂慮等屬靈問題。二,是指瘋狂的人假裝生病。

Before Sigmund Freud came along, when people (in the church) say, such a person is “mentally sick,” there are two possible meanings: (a) the word “sickness” is a metaphor; “sickness” may refer to sorrow, sin, worry, etc. – spiritual problems.  (b) “Mental sickness” refers to insane people pretending that they are sick. 

4. 清教徒牧師都從事輔導﹕靈魂的醫治 。其基礎是上帝的話,《聖經》的教義。

All Puritan pastors do counseling: “the cure of souls.”  The foundation of counseling is God’s word, truths/doctrines revealed in the Bible. 

清教徒稱憂鬱作病,可是這絕對是寓意的 (metaphorical)

When Puritans call depression (melancholy) “sickness,” it may be metaphorical.

5. 佛洛伊德 (Sigmund Freud) 的革命,乃將寓意的用法變成是事實 像與身體上的疾病一樣 其實很多論調沒有科學根據。目前很多科學家,心理學家都承認佛氏的理論中所有的重要觀念都是錯誤,都不合乎科學(見 Newsweek 1992的封面文章, “The Death of Freud”;  google.com: “Is Freud Dead?”)。這樣一來,人們,社會對心理病的態度,就以為它們真的是與身體上的疾病一樣,是有科學根據的事實。

Sigmund Freud’s revolution in psychology makes “mental illness” a fact – just like physical illnesses.  Many of his arguments have no scientific basis.  Today many scientists and psychologists believe that all major ideas in Freud’s thought are wrong and unscientific.  (“The Death of Freud,” Newsweek, 1992.)

6. 心理病 (mental illness) 觀念的問題在於﹕既是病,人不需負責任。沒有責任感,就沒有盼望!聖經稱罪為罪,是要給人在上帝面前負責;在上帝面前負責,就有盼望。上帝稱罪為罪,因有赦罪的恩典提供給我們!赦免比治療更重要,更寶貴!

The problem with the notion of “mental illness”: Since man is “ill,” he is not responsible.  There is no sense of responsibility, therefore: no hope!  The Bible calls sin sin, to make us responsible before God.  This way, there is hope for man!  God calls sin sin, because forgiveness is available!  Forgiveness is more important/valuable than “therapy”! 

 

XX.吃藥可以嗎?Is It OK to Take Medication?

我們並不懷疑,吃某一種藥會有某一種的效果 (包括 side effects)

We do not doubt that: there are effects, including side-effects, when we take medicine! 

Robert Smith, M.D., The Christian Counselor’s Medical Desk Reference.  www.timelesstexts.org. 

千萬不要勸一個正在吃藥的人,停止吃藥。這不是我們的責任!

Do not ever advise a person who is on medication, to stop taking it!  That is not our job! 

究竟這個人的問題是什麼?是什麼問題使他「需要」吃藥?

What is this person’s problem, which causes him/her to “need” the medication?

他的問題是否真的大腦不靈或 chemical imbalance?  

Is it really true that his brain malfunctions, or there is chemical imbalance in his body? 

很多時候,人的所謂「心理病」其實是罪,是逃避責任。

Quite often, what goes for “mental illness” is actually sin and escaping one’s responsibility. 

《聖靈的勸誡》 Competent to Counsel, 13, 15  Edward Welch, Blame it on the Brain?  

 

XXI.世俗的觀念二﹕自尊心 (Self-Esteem) 不合乎《聖經》 

Secular Concept #2: The Idea of “Self-Esteem” is Against the Bible

1. 耶穌基督來到世上, 不是要給人一個積極的自尊心 (positive self-esteem)

Jesus Christ came to earth, not to give a positive self-esteem to men and women! 

這是心理學和一些基督教領袖的提倡,不是正統的福音。

“Self-esteem” is an idea promoted by some psychologists and Christians – but not the gospel. 

如﹕ Robert Schuller (Crystal Cathedral, Garden Grove, California) 認為救恩就是積極的自尊心。Schuller thinks that salvation consists of a positive self-esteem. 

2. 耶穌基督來,是要我們背起十字架跟從祂,要捨己,而不是愛己。

Jesus Christ came, to teach and requires us to take up the cross to follow him – to deny ourselves, not to love ourselves.

3. 那末,我們不是應當愛人如己嗎?所以應該先愛己嘛!

But you may ask: isn’t it true that we should love others as ourselves?  So we should love ourselves first! 

這是嚴重的解經錯誤。This is a very serious mistake in interpreting the Bible. 

《聖經》講到愛人「如己」,是指我們愛人應愛到什麼程度,不是先愛己、後愛人。

When the Bible says that we should love others as ourselves, “as ourselves” refers to the extent to which we should love others.  It has to do with loving others, not loving ourselves.  The Bible does NOT teach us to love ourselves first, then love others.

我們墮落了的人性,不需要上帝提醒我們愛惜自己!我們的本性就是以自己為中心的。我們需要的真理乃是﹕捨棄愛己,去愛上帝,愛別人。

Our fallen, sinful human nature does not need God to teach us to love ourselves!  We are already self-centered.  The truth we need, is to learn to give up loving ourselves, and learn to love God and love other people. 

4.  Self-esteem 按照心理學的論調,是往往需要別人來贊賞 (positive self-regard)

Rogers’ psychology, we need positive self-regard in order to have a positive self-esteem. 

這種說法,無形中強調自己的獨立,自主,和主權。正與捨己的福音相反。

This way of promoting self-esteem presupposes that we should insist that we are autonomous, independent, and sovereign.  It stands in exact opposition to the gospel in the Bible. 

 

XXII.世俗的觀念三﹕自卑感 Secular Concept #3: Inferiority Complex

1. 《聖經》沒有自卑的觀念。《雅各書》4章的自卑與心理學的自卑感沒有關係。

The Bible does not teach the concept of “inferiority complex.”  “Humble yourselves” in James chapter 4 is something else; it has nothing to do with “inferiority” or “low self-image.”

2. 我們的自卑,是因為我們與別人比較。我們非常在意他人怎樣看我們。

We feel “low self-esteem” because we compare ourselves with others.  We care too much about how other people look at us. 

3. 我在意別人怎樣看我,主要問題是﹕我自己最重要,比任何人,比上帝都更重要。

We care about how other people look at us, because: we feel that we ourselves are so important, we are more important than anyone else, than God. 

4. 解決自卑感的辦法﹕相信上帝,感謝祂所賜給我的一切。

The way out of “low self-esteem”: trust God, thank God for all that he has given us. 

5. 因此﹕自卑與自大一樣,都是不信的表現。

You see, inferiority complex is the same as arrogance: they are both expressions of unbelief. 

6. 很多人很害怕;怕別人看見我的真相;怕別人不肯定我,不喜歡我;怕別人會傷害我。解決的方法﹕先懂得敬畏上帝!

A lot of people are afraid: they are afraid that “others will see the real me”; “others will not like me, and will reject me”; and “others will hurt me.”  Solution: fear God first! 

 

XXIII.世俗觀念四﹕羅傑斯 Secular Concept #4: Carl Rogers’ Non-Directive Counseling

1.     非指引的輔導方法﹕  non-directive counseling; 等於是非輔導的輔導!

Non-directive counseling: it amounts to “non-counseling counseling!” 

2.     羅氏的人觀﹕人的自我 (self) 乃是一個人的經歷的總和。人並沒有靈魂。

Rogers on man: the “self” = sum total of a person’s experiences.  Man doesn’t have a soul.

3.     而人這個動物 (organism) 有一個導向自主的傾向  (a tendency toward autonomy)

This organism – man – has a tendency to move toward autonomy. 

4.     怎樣使人朝著自主方向走?人需要別人正面的對待 (positive regard),和自己對自己正面的對待 (positive self-regard) 因此,人需要別人的肯定。

How to help man along toward this goal?  Man needs positive regard, and positive self-regard.  Therefore, we need to be affirmed by others. 

5.     《聖經》的人觀﹕人不只是經歷的總和;人是靈魂,人是上帝的形象;按上帝的形象被造,有他的經歷。而我們如何面對我們的經歷,要在上帝面前負責。

The Bible’s view of man: Man is NOT the sum total of his experiences.  Man is soul, man is the image of God.  Man is created in the image of God; man does have experiences.  We are responsible for our responses to our experiences.    

 

XXIV.世俗觀念五﹕新紀元宗教觀念與心理學  Secular Concept #5: New Age Philosophy  

1. 新紀元是古希臘的諾斯底主義( Gnosticism, 新約已指責為異端)和東方宗教(道教,佛教,印度教等)的混合品。www.cwipp.org

New Age is a combination/mixture of Gnosticism (philosophy and religion from ancient Greece and Rome; condemned by the early church as a heresy), and Asian religions (Daoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, etc.). 

2. 新紀元的神觀﹕神是我;我是神。我是宇宙;宇宙是我。神是宇宙;宇宙是神。

New Age view of God: God is me.  I am God.  I am the universe.  The universe is me.  God is the universe.  The universe is God.

3. 新紀元靈媒 (spirit-mediums)﹕今天很多西方的靈媒著書立說,代表天使,邪靈發言。靈媒中的教義(例如﹕無條件的愛與接納;我就是上帝等)有 80% 已被世俗心理學家用在他們的著作中。

Spirit-mediums: Many spirit-mediums (“channels”) today are authors of books.  They write on behalf of angels and demons.  The doctrines taught by channels (e.g. unconditional acceptance, I am God, etc.) – 80% of these doctrines have been incorporated into secular psychology books.

4. 「基督教心理輔導」的著作,已用上靈媒的教義的50-59%!

And what about books written by Christian psychologists?  They have used 50-59% of these concepts/doctrines!  (cf. Lois Chan, Unholy Alliance.)

      (見張逸萍博士論文﹕ Lois Chan, Unholy Alliance: her Ph.D. dissertation, Trinity College and Seminary of Indiana, 2002。)

 

XXV.女權主義。Feminism.

參﹕《女人與事奉》,校園﹕Susan Foh 一章。

Cf. Susan Foh, Women and the Word of God (P&R), or Susan Foh’s chapter in Women in Ministry: Four Views (IVP).  

參﹕《丹佛宣言》,林慈信譯。

Cf. Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood www.cbmw.org -> “About Us” -> “Core Beliefs: Danvers Statement.” 

 

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